Illustration from Bee Basics: An Introduction to Our Native Bees, a joint effort between the Pollinator Partnership and the USDA Forest Service.

Peace Meal Supper Club #3: Pollination

For this month’s Peace Meal Supper Club #3: Pollination, I developed a menu to highlight the harvest that has come to us through the gracious work of summer’s pollinators. I wanted to provide various portals into the beneficent hall of mirrors that is our interdependent ecosystem. As I studied the topic more, that hall of mirrors turned into a house of horrors. Thankfully, there is a way out.

One of the principal ideas behind Supper Club is that everyone who attends learns something new about the world around them. This has been a great challenge for me, too, as I must read up on topics with which I might have only moderate familiarity. It’s a crash course each month, for I must complete my research, develop a menu, plan its execution, and write an essay to guide the discussion. Suffice to say that this month’s topic has proven to be a monster. The overlaying of so many issues, the potential impact of continued negligence, the purposeful attacks by industry on our natural systems, the willing cooperation from Congress, betrayal by government agencies, and the millions of unseeing eyes and unlistening ears—it is tough to wrap one’s head around all of it.

I offer my apology up front for the length of this article. Trust me, I have left many things on the cutting floor. This really is only a peek into the stormy darkness inhabited by our most loyal of friends, the pollinators.

Please, when you reach the “Things To Do” section, believe that any one of them can make a real positive difference.


Pollinators, just through the act of being themselves, provide humanity with well over a third of its principal diet. Hiding in all that delectable food are valuable nutrients we simply cannot live without. It’s no stretch to say that our fate is linked with the fate of the bees. Yet they are facing a perfect storm of deadly factors, with the final outcome affecting more than just us and them. The fertility of the earth, and the vibrancy of life upon it, stands in jeopardy.

The facts of this brewing storm are readily available. To begin with, over 100 US and Canadian food crops require animal pollination.[1] Considering non-food crops such as cotton, ninety percent of commercial crops in North America require animal pollination. Beyond commercial crops, seventy-five percent of all flowering plants on earth require animal pollination of some kind.[2]

Animal pollinators include diverse species of bees, butterflies, moths, and myriad other insects. Birds and bats play a significant role, as do many other animals. Bees, however, are the most active commercially, in the form of professionally managed colonies which are trucked around the country from one blooming field to another.[3] In 1947 there were 5.9 million captive bee colonies in the US. In 2005, there were only 2.4 million.[4] This drastic 50% reduction is but one indicator of the storm.

Captive pollinator populations can be quantified, even if the numbers are so large that they stretch our comprehension. Wild pollinator populations, however, cannot be counted so easily. According to the National Academy of Sciences, “For most North American pollinator species, long-term population data are lacking and knowledge of their basic ecology is incomplete. These information deficiencies make definitive assessments of North American pollinator status exceedingly difficult.”[5]

The work of all these pollinators is of dire importance to us. Just consider a short list of food crops made possible by their work: apples, oranges, tomatoes, melons, peppers, squashes, cucumbers—all fruit-bearing plants whose large blossoms evolved to summon the desire of pollinators. Other food plants—broccoli, carrots, fennel, leafy greens, onions, and a host of others—need animal pollination in order to produce seeds. All of these plants add diversity and essential nutrients to the human diet, such as omega oils, antioxidants, vitamins, fiber, and protein.[6]

Some plants which are not routinely consumed by humans—clover and alfalfa, for example–require animal pollination in order to produce seeds. As any biodynamic gardener will tell you, these cover crops are useful for nitrogen development in soils. They are critical, therefore, for any attempt at natural and sustainable food production.

The causes for pollinator decline are numerous, interleaved and linked in an impossible Gordian root-ball. A primary factor among native pollinators is habitat loss, due to sprawling cities and agricultural fields, industrial complexes, oil and gas exploration, mining, and coastal developments. Alongside habitat loss is habitat fragmentation, in which natural areas lie in non-contiguous pieces across a region. Loss of biodiversity, a natural result of so much human development, means less and lower quality food for pollinators. Pesticide use quite naturally diminishes pollinator populations, but the use of herbicides also takes its toll. Both of these alter the landscape significantly, greatly reducing habitable areas. [7]

In addition, diseases and parasites are spread by the interaction between migrating bee colonies being used by commercial pollination services. This not only affects commercial bees, of course: wild bees are also exposed to the pathogens. Wild pollinators work in the same fields as their migrant sisters, and authorities acknowledge that they are suffering many of same effects.[8] We just don’t know how to quantify the wild impact.

Industrial-scale monoculture also plays a large part. The almond groves in California—where 80% of the world’s almond crop is produced—cover an area the size of Rhode Island.[9] Almond trees bloom for only 2 to 3 weeks per year, which means that for the remaining 50 weeks, the area is a vast pollinator desert where no bee can survive. For this reason, 1.6 million commercial bee colonies are trucked in to service the trees as they bloom. When the blooms drop, the hives are loaded up and trucked to other US fields needing pollinators.

These pollinator deserts also exist across vast portions of the American Midwest, where wind-pollinated grains are produced. The vast ‘breadbasket’ of the nation provides no sustenance for bees. The native pollinators that once lived there have been starved out. This is repeated anywhere monoculture exists, regardless of crop. Once a pumpkin field has ceased blooming, there remains no more food for the pollinators.

The cumulative effect is this: the land has become so toxic and unsupportive that bees and other pollinators can no longer function naturally. Massive die-offs are to be expected. The term “colony collapse disorder” (CCD) was coined in 2007 as a means of identifying, and hopefully diagnosing, these massive die-offs.[10]

CCD—a frightening and complex convergence of factors–is more than just a loss of bees, however. It signals a complete breakdown in the ecosystem. We haven’t just poisoned a few bugs. We’ve invoked a systemic ecological collapse.

Government and institutional reports can’t help but relate the problem in terms of economy, as if that were the only thing at stake. From the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) comes this assessment, from their 2007 report “Status of Pollinators in North America:” “Severe shortages of pollinators could cause many common food crops to become more expensive and perhaps less available, but there is no strong evidence for a current pollination crisis in agricultural production in North America. Most animal-pollinated crops can be serviced by honey bees, and farmers are accustomed to paying more for these services when necessary. Chronic pollinator shortages should lead to market adjustments and other innovations, although the demand for supplemental pollination has been strong recently, especially among California’s almond growers. Importing managed pollinators from other countries or regions can lead to the introduction and spread of pathogens and unwanted bee species.”[11]

(Their report contains such circuitous indecisiveness throughout, as if Rimsky-Korsakov were the chief editor.)

The report’s executive summary states the primary concern more succinctly: “Managed pollinator decline and rising cost of pest control could increase pollinator rental fees.”[12] But it’s a much bigger problem than the economy, and will need a bigger solution than just paying higher rent.

By the way, it’s not just human sustenance at stake, but also food which supports a vast number of other species, from bears to birds to voles. Fruits can account for 60% of a grizzly bear’s late summer diet. Roughly a quarter of all birds consume, as a major portion of their diet, fruits and seeds that result from animal pollination. The pollinating insects themselves serve as food for some birds, lizards, and spiders, and are therefore an even more integral part of the food web.[13]

The NAS report acknowledges: “There is a possibility that a cascade of ecological consequences could follow from the loss (or change in abundance) of roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds—all of which can be resources for herbivores (including seed predators)—produced by plants. A broad range of herbivores and frugivores is supported by such resources, as are parasites and parasitoids of those species. Decreases in seeds, nuts, and fruits could be damaging to many species of insects, birds, and mammals, even if plant populations do not exhibit declines. More severe effects are expected if populations of mature plants become scarcer.”[14]

The Xerces Society puts it this way: “Pollinators are a keystone species group; the survival of a large number of other species depends upon them… [T]hey are essential to the reproductive cycles of most flowering plants, supporting plant populations that animals and birds rely on for food and shelter. Pollinators are also indicator species, meaning that the viability and health of pollinator populations provide a snapshot of the health of the ecosystem. As the insects that many plants require for adequate pollination disappear, the effect on the health and viability of crops and native plant communities can be disastrous.”[15]

Further, “the loss of pollinator species reduces the redundancy of pollinator services in the ecosystem, and thus its resiliency, so that further losses of pollinator species would likely have more severe consequences for the ecosystem.”[16]

All of these concerns figure into scientists’ expectations of the sixth great extinction, presently approaching our doorstep.[17]

It’s almost as if humans—in the form of corporations and government agencies–are now tinkering at the sub-molecular level in our biosphere. As if the natural world’s DNA is being genetically modified in a massive and uncontrolled experiment. The consequences are troubling, and potentially irreversible.

The momentum is fierce, and as predictable, attempts to shift the inertia meet with institutional resistance. In 2013, for example, a bill was introduced to modify the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) to push for faster approval of pesticides to control parasitic pests, such as the varroa mite. While beekeepers protested that many stressors were harming pollinators, this bill only focused on the authorization of another pesticide. A House Agricultural Subcommittee hearing, however, invited no beekeepers. However, Bayer AG, developer of neonicotinoid pesticides, was invited.[18]

This only adds insult to injury, for Congress had already blocked certain pollinator species from protection under the Endangered Species Act, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior.[19]

As if we didn’t already know this, it’s time for us concerned citizens to play the role of pathogens within the dominant system. We must use alternative avenues for subverting the collusion between agricultural industry and our government. One need not be an alarmist or a hyper-reactionary to understand that our system is not functioning healthfully.

Yet simple acts on our part can lead to better conditions. If we do not feel we are changing the dominant inertia, we should be confident that we are acting as preservers, holding on to the things that do work, so that they will be vibrant at the moment that they become vital.

Here are several accessible and sustainable acts everyone can perform. Collectively they will establish alternative habitats, safe houses for our companions, the pollinators.

What To Do:

Put out water for bees. This is something we all can do, starting today. As habitats are compromised, bees have a difficult time finding fresh water. Use a shallow pan, and place small stones in it so the bees have a place to light while they drink.

Support organic agriculture, even if it the fields are thousands of miles away. “Organic” is far more important than “local.” Can you explain why this is true?

Plant food gardens. With the food gardens, you are feeding pollinators as well as yourself, thereby lessening the reach of industrial agriculture. By growing what you need throughout the summer, you are providing a progression of diverse blooms, which all pollinators need.

Support a CSA or similar farm, one which grows diverse crops that flower throughout the spring, summer, and autumn. Organic small-scale farms provide environments where pollinators thrive.

Create habitats, specifically with native flowering plants, like wildflowers. You’ll find planting guides at two of the websites listed below.

Adopt a bee colony. Although it is a recent development, there are vegans who keep bees simply to provide them a good home. This is no different than adopting a hen, goat, pig, or dog from a sanctuary or shelter.

Learn more. Here are a few suggestions to get you started.

The Organic Consumers Association has countless articles regarding bees and issues they face. These links lead to a few of them. — The main page of the bee section. contains a list of ways in which we’ve meddled with the natural lives of bees. provides an overview of Colony Collapse Disorder.

Pollinator Partnership:
They offer comprehensive planting guides for supporting pollinators: The Simply Have Areas Reserved for the Environment program provides a wonderfully accessible way in which everyone, anyone, can provide natural habitat.

The Center for Food Safety covers a multitude of topics, including pollinators-related challenges.

The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation,, exists specifically to help insects survive in a world that seems determined to eradicate them. They have extensive guides for planting and preservation, such as this one:

The Pesticide Action Network has a current campaign focusing on pollinators and pesticides:

More Than Honey, a film by Markus Imhoof, provides a powerful and spell-binding look into the modern world of bees.

Attracting Native Pollinators, by the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, published by Storey Publishing, 2011. This book is an easy-to-read and informative guide for protecting our native bee and butterfly populations.

Bee Basics: An Introduction to Our Native Bees, a joint effort between the Pollinator Partnership and the USDA Forest Service. Apart from beautiful illustrations, it contains many practical ideas for helping bees. It is available in free PDF form here:

Status of Pollinators in North America, by the National Research Council (comprised of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine), published by the National Academies Press, 2007. Available for free download: The Organic Consumers Association has a review/synopsis on their website:

The Year the Monarch Didn’t Appear, New York Times, Nov. 24, 2013:

Declining Bee Populations Pose A Threat to Global Agriculture, a Yale e360 report, April 30, 2013:

End Notes:

[1] Attracting Native Pollinators: Protecting North America’s Bees and Butterflies, Xerces Society, 2011; page 5

[2] Status of Pollinators in North America, National Academies Press, 2007, page 1

[3] Itinerant colonies of bees are nothing new. The Egyptians regularly barged hives up and down the Nile, following the blooming plants along the river. Today’s commercial operations truck thousands of hives from the US Southeast over to California, up to the Great Plains, to Maine, and back down to Florida. For a peek into the practice in the late 1800s, see the American Bee Journal, Volume 14, No. 1, here. A more contemporary view can be found at Click the link entitled “Economic Value of Beekeeping.” It will launch a PDF report.

[4] “Declining honey bees a ‘threat’ to food supply,” Associated Press & NBC News Report, May 2, 2007;

[5] Status of Pollinators in North America, page 1

[6] From the Status of Pollinators in North America report, pages 104-105: “An evaluation of experimental evidence for pollination requirements of 107 globally traded fruit and vegetable crops (representing 40 percent of global plant-based food production) by Klein et al. (2007) shows that animal pollination improves production in 75 percent of the crops studied. Most cultivars of another 10 percent of the crops require animal pollination. Another 8.5 percent of the crops do not benefit from animal pollination and its role in production of the remaining 6.5 percent crops is not known. Many crops, however—notably the staple grains that form the foundation of most human diets (rice, wheat, maize, sorghums, millets, rye, barley)—are self-pollinating or pollinated by the wind. Together, species that do not rely on pollinators account for most of the world’s food supply by weight (FAO, 2005).

“Pollinator declines, therefore, do not fundamentally threaten the world’s caloric supplies. However, fruits and vegetables, which add diversity to the human diet and provide essential nutrients, tend to depend heavily on pollinators (Prescott-Allen and Prescott-Allen, 1990; Roubik, 1995). Seven of the nine crops that provide at least 50 percent of the vitamin C available to the human diet globally depend partially or entirely on animal pollination for the production of fruits or seeds (oranges, cabbages, green peppers, tomatoes, melons, tangerines, watermelon) (FAO, 2005; Free, 1993; McGregor, 1976; USDA-NASS, 2006b)

“… Although estimates of the proportion of the human diet that is attributable to animal pollination are occasionally attempted and frequently cited (for example, McGregor’s 1976 estimate that one-third of the human diet can be traced directly or indirectly to animal pollination), the proportion likely varies among countries and regions and depends on dietary preferences, seasonal availability, cultural practices, and economic status of consumers.”

[7] Attracting Native Pollinators, pages 74-76; a more extensive list is given in Status of Pollinators in North America, pages 93-94.

[8] Status of Pollinators in North America, pages 87-93

[9] United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2014, California Almond Objective Measurement Report, available here.

[10] Global Honey Bee Colony Disorders and Other Threats to Insect Pollinators, United Nations Environment Programme Report, 2010: A concise overview of CCD can be found on the Pesticide Action Network website: The Organic Consumers Association has an entire repository of articles on the topic:

[11] Status of Pollinators in North America, page 129

[12] Status of Pollinators in North America, page 6

[13] Attracting Native Pollinators, page 8

[14] Status of Pollinators in North America, page 127

[15] Attracting Native Pollinators, page 11

[16] Status of Pollinators in North America, page 129

[17] The Sixth Great Extinction is Underway, and We’re to Blame, Time Magazine, July 25, 2014, available here:

[18] “New Pollinator Bill Helps Pesticide Industry, Not Bees or Beekeepers,” Center for Food Safety press release, September 12, 2013, available here:

[19] Status of Pollinators in North America, page 12


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Savory Waffle with Vegetable Tempura and Spiced Plum Sauce

Peace Meal Supper Club #2: Ghost Festival

This Supper Club theme was announced 10 days before my father passed away. It was a strange stroke of coincidence. The themes inherent in the Ghost Festival have been prominent in the relationship between us for the past 15 years, and as he left this life my sense of loss was mixed with a rich awareness of gratitude.

Contributions to my life include a deeply rooted love for food—not just eating it, but planting it and nurturing it into an abundant crop. He loved to cook also, and was always keen to experimentation. He shared his favorite dishes with great generosity. Other things he gave me were by demonstration: a sharp mechanical mind, facility in a wide range of crafts, a creative eye for solutions, and most of all, an attitude that a person can do what they determine to do, whether it be play fiddle or rebuild an old tractor. His ingenuity far exceeded his unadorned high school education.

He had a remarkable ability to forgive anything and reconcile with anyone—and that is a truly inspiring contribution to my life. Our road to reconciliation was winding and rocky, and navigating it required a few death-defying leaps from one cliff to the next. However, we completed the course and found ourselves becoming good friends late in his life. With each step, we confronted the problems directly and forgave liberally. The release of wrongs was not only between him and me; it helped him resolve wrongs committed against him by his own ancestors. He became a happier person as a result of all this hard work.

As we reconciled, and I could see with clarity, I began to appreciate the sacrifices he made for his family. He wanted the best for us and, given the limitations in which he lived, he achieved that goal. He was kind to our friends, welcoming to all, and would do anything he could for a person once he trusted them.

Clarity of conscience was an unspeakable gift in his final day. I was able to tell him, without qualification, that he was a good man, and that it was okay for him to go. Though I feel his absence, there is no sadness or regret. Our relationship, in spite of the odds, was a good one.

One last gift I’ll mention: he had a truly bizarre sense of humor, dressed up in a cloak of morbidity. As his health was failing, he knew he’d never be able to visit me here in New York. He enjoyed my cooking, however, and would have loved to be here at this meal. Perhaps he found yet another creative solution to a problem. Welcome to supper, Dad.

The menu, fore and aft, follows below.


Peace Meal Supper Club #2: Ghost Festival

Inspired by August celebrations in Japan and China, in which people honor the spirits of their ancestors. This menu reaches beyond the limitations of geography and direct descent.

Course 1:

Futomaki rolls ~ Pickled vegetables

With this traditional offering, we signify our ancestors’ contributions to our present well-being.

Course 2:

Scallion waffle ~ Vegetable tempura ~ Spiced plum sauce

Life is intrinsically savory and sweet. In reconciling both, we achieve sustaining harmony.

Course 3:

Panang tempeh roulade ~ Shiitakes braised with lemongrass ~ Red curry

Our abundance lies bundled in our unselfish service to others.

Course 4:

Seared plums ~ Five spice ice cream ~ Limoncello reduction

Delight is fostered by a clear conscience.


(The following appears on the reverse side of the menu.)

The Ghost Festival in China and the Bon Festival in Japan have their roots in the apocryphal Ullambana Sutra. In this text, Buddha’s disciple Maudgalyayana perceives his mother in torment in hell, so he asks the Buddha how he might release her. He is instructed to make food offerings to a group of monks as they return from a forest retreat. He does so, and sees that his mother is released. He cannot keep himself from dancing with great joy.

Both festivals contain echoes of the Confucian virtue of filial piety, which focuses on the honoring of parents, reconciliation, generosity, and continuance of the family’s good name. The spirit of these practices reaches beyond ideology and national celebration.

~ 1 ~

Our ancestors’ contributions to our lives are fundamental to our identity. We then act in agreement with or rejection of this identity. When we extend our concept of ancestors to include past social progressives, animal advocates, and environmental activists, we sense the depth of our debt to all who have worked for the well-being of all living things. We also gain a greater understanding of our work’s depth and vitality. Keeping our ancestors close in memory allows us to benefit from their inertia. They are the momentous breeze at our threshold.

~ 2 ~

Reconciliation is crucial for achieving sustained harmony. Forgiveness is a key component of reconciling, as it signifies letting go. It frees up all the backward-looking energy and makes it available for moving forward. All whom we’ve wronged or been wronged by—ancestors, forerunners, animals, future generations—benefit from reconciliation with us, for they also have their energy focused on moving forward.

In a similar vein, activists and artists live in a state of dissatisfaction; it drives our desire for change. But we must be able to transcend our struggle in order to maintain balance. We must acknowledge the progress that we are making—even if we are far from our desired goal. Quite possibly, those who preceded us were also unhappy with the progress they made, yet we celebrate their achievements and hope to be as effective.

~ 3 ~

Our abundance lies bundled in our unselfish service to others. Without doubt, we have received, and likewise we should give. Every act of kindness, every step towards liberation, brings us the increasing benefits of full liberation. In the story of Maudgalyayana above, he gave to others so that his mother could be free from suffering. With a generous heart he extended the circle of good will. As a result, the greater reward was his.

~ 4 ~

Delight is fostered by a clear conscience: this is the moral of the story of Maudgalyayana. Once he performed service to others in honor of his mother, he began to see all the sacrifices she had made for him. His conscience—seemingly clouded with ingratitude–was cleared by his action. Learning the merits of a giving heart, he danced joyfully.

Demonstrating goodness to others is a form of honor towards those who have gone before, for it perpetuates their goodness to us. Such continuity of effort enables us to making deeper and longer-lasting changes in the world around us.

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Peace Meal Supper Club #1: Liberation

I was very proud to send out an announcement last week to close friends, activist associates, and new acquaintances. It regarded the debut of Peace Meal Supper Club, an intimate evening of fine food and progressive discussion, focused on strengthening ourselves as agents for positive change. It’s a private event, held in the home I share with my partner, The Stapler.  She serves as hostess while I keep the pans hopping on the stove.

The event is simple in concept, like salon-meets-dinner-party. I design a menu centered upon a theme. The diners, while enjoying the meal, freely explore the theme through their dinner conversation.

Peace Meal Supper Club is the physical manifestation of an idea—that food and harmony and social justice and animal rights and environmental responsibility and all other good things can coexist around a single dinner table. It’s the idea that we can all be nourished sufficiently and satisfactorily at the same time, with no harm being done to anyone living. It’s a big idea, so it’s going to take a lot of good food. And a lot of progressive discussion.

These two focal points will manifest in their most natural ways.

The food will be exploratory, fusion-inspired, organic, always vegan. Through the dinner’s four courses, I will highlight ethnic commonalities in the use of techniques and spices, hopefully illustrating our global communion.

The discussion, provided by the diners with only subtle suggestion from me via the menu, will be, like all good discussions, free form, widely ranging, self-governing and civil. But the theme will be clearly on the table, with each course reminding the diners that there is a purpose to our being here.

That leaves only the outcome–which will also be free form and widely ranging. Everyone will respond in their own way, but they will be better informed and perhaps more focused after having come to Supper Club.

The theme for the first one is Liberation—a fitting theme for the month of July, in which so many nations celebrate their liberation from other powers. Sometimes we can understand an idea better through contrast. While it would be easy to say USA vs. China, for example, that is indeed too simplistic. It is much more informative to look at those living amidst liberty yet having their own denied. For example, men incarcerated at Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp; Leonard Peltier—and indeed all indigenous Americans; Mexican nationals working in American agricultural fields; and animals held against their will, used for human food.

While preparing for the debut of Peace Meal Supper Club, I’ve revisited old notes and memories. Scribbles of culinary ideas take shape easily, and with a certain plating flair the result will suffice to break the conversational ice. What’s hard is trying to encapsulate all the intellectual ideas. Showing visual contrast on a plate is easy with color and space; on the palate, I can play with bitter or sweet flavors. But how does one show ideological disparity in a main course?

While I try to figure that out artistically, I will sow seeds with words. Let the diners’ discussion bloom into the fruit of change.

With that in mind, here’s the menu for Peace Meal Supper Club #1: Liberation.

Course 1:

Vegetables Stir-Fried with Afghan Spices ~ Red Chile Aioli ~ Naan

In honor of the 149 hostages presently held in Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp, and the 630 that preceded them

Course 2:

Wild Rice Pilaf ~ Smoked Butternut Skewer ~ Maple Currant Glaze

With respect to Leonard Peltier, US political prisoner since 1977, and to his people, without liberty since 1877

Course 3:

Mushroom Picadillo Tamales ~ Mole Amarillo ~ Roasted Fingerlings

For the 5 million Mexican and American farmworkers excluded from US labor protections

Course 4:

Vanilla Crème Brulee ~ Cherry Chutney ~ Cardamom Cookie

In memory of the billions of animals used annually by the US industrial agricultural system

(On the reverse side of the menu I will offer diners an opportunity to go deeper into the theme via relevant books, websites, and films. The backside of the Liberation menu, therefore, contains the following.)

Seven hundred and seventy nine humans have been incarcerated in Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp since 2002, most of whom were captured under a US-sponsored bounty system. International treaties, Geneva Conventions, UN statutes, US laws, and human rights principles have been openly flouted in order to continue “politically expedient” detention of men without filing formal charges against them. Rampant denial of rights continues under the present administration, though closure of the camp had been promised. Course 1 highlights the Afghan crossroads of cuisine, culture, and capture.

Learn more:

Leonard Peltier, in prison since 1977 for the alleged murder of two FBI agents, represents the indigenous nations who have been systematically eradicated since the arrival of European settlers. His 1970s advocacy of Lakota sovereignty came in the wake of the “Century of Dishonor,” a period marked by repeated treaty violations on the part of the US. His mixed Lakota and Ojibwe heritage is represented in Course 2.

Learn more:

  • In the Spirit of Crazy Horse, by Peter Matthiessen, Viking Penguin, 1983
  • Incident at Oglala, 1992 documentary produced and narrated by Robert Redford
  • Article at Popular Resistance, regarding indigenous sovereignty and human rights,

Perhaps the biggest invisible problem in the US today is the plight of farmworkers. Whether citizens or foreign nationals, they are exempt from key components of US labor law: Child labor in agricultural settings is permitted by the Fair Labor Standards Act; agricultural workers are exposed to unregulated pesticides in the name of research; agricultural workers are exempt from disability and workers’ compensation in many states; overtime hours are not paid. As for ‘legal’ guest workers, former House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Charles Rangel declared the guest worker program to be the closest thing he’d ever seen to slavery. For those who are here ‘illegally,’ the problems only deepen. The overwhelming majority of US farmworkers are of Mexican heritage, and Course 3 is in their honor.

Learn more:

Well over 9 billion animals are killed by the US agricultural system annually. They represent only a fraction of those still living in the system, deemed exempt from even the most basic cruelty regulations. Held against their will and hidden from common view, they are exploited for the sake of temporary appetite. Course 4 is offered in tribute to these animals. When they are released, we will be liberated from inhumanity.

Learn more:

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Cesar Chavez: Farm Labor Leader, Civil Rights Worker, and Vegan.

Daily Diet of Civil Rights

Civility at the dinner table has long been a value of mine. Taking care not to speak ill of others, engage in arguments, or discuss disturbing news contributes to a pleasant dining experience. Increasingly, though, I’ve come to view it as much more than having decent manners and keeping conversations positive. The food on our plates can undermine all that politeness, making eating one of the most uncivil acts we can perform. In a world where our ethics overlap in complicated ways, sometimes a bit of knowledge can make a monumental difference.

To illustrate, consider a report recently released by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) regarding the effectiveness of state educational systems in delivering civil rights education.[1] Three states received ‘A’ letter grades. Interestingly, these three states were in the old South: Louisiana, Georgia, and South Carolina. Fourteen states received failing grades, many of which are in the traditional north and the west.

The report explains: “Rather than recognizing the profound national significance of the civil rights movement, many states continue to mistakenly see it as a regional matter, or a topic of interest mainly for black students…Generally speaking, the farther away from the South—and the smaller the African-American population—the less attention paid to the movement.”

It seems fitting that here in North Carolina, a center of civil rights activity in the 1960s, there is a museum dedicated to the movement. The International Civil Rights Center & Museum in Greensboro is dedicated to preserving the memory of a specific event–the Woolworth lunch counter sit-ins that began in February 1960.[2] Name-checking Rosa Parks, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Mohandas Gandhi, and others, it pays tribute to those whose work is done. But it stops there. It issues no rousing call-to-action for the many civil rights violations that occur daily. It seems to not know of the ongoing struggle among American agricultural workers in the same state. However, civil rights are not only a Black and White issue.

In light of the SPLC statement about proximity, it seems odd that farm workers are not mentioned: agriculture is the state’s 3rd largest industry.[3]

Organic plant agriculture contributes to a fair world for all beings.
Organic plant agriculture contributes to a fair world for all beings.

The problem is not unique to North Carolina, by any means. In my previous home state of New Mexico—a state with a very active border—biases were frequently strong against agricultural workers. I recall having an animated conversation with an editor there, one whose most recent work was on a manuscript with a strong civil rights edge. I stated my frustration over the fact that many agricultural workers are routinely denied medical treatment. She reacted angrily, offended by my suggestion that they be cared for. Simply put, they were illegal and had no rights. She, however, was a hard-working American.

Her response laid bare the sticky center of the problem: we have conflated the terms ‘agricultural worker’ and ‘foreign national.’ Additional terms, such as ‘guest worker,’ ‘migrant farm worker,’ and ‘what-about-Americans-doing-farm-work?’ only cloud the issue. It’s easier to put them all in the same category—‘illegals’–and justify institutionalized civil rights abuses. If they’re not citizens, they don’t have rights. And tagging them all as non-citizens instills plenty of distance between us and their problem.

But just as civil rights are not only a Black and White issue, they are also not a citizenship issue. The question of citizenship is really a moot point, to be honest. Regulations that govern the agricultural industry endanger the well-being and lives of all workers, domestic and imported.

Consider that child labor in agricultural settings is permitted by the Fair Labor Standards Act.[4] All workers are exposed to unregulated pesticides in the name of research.[5] Many states exempt agricultural workers from disability and workers’ compensation.[6] Overtime hours are not paid.[7] The rights infractions go on and on, in regulations which apply to American citizens, in an industry with the highest occupational fatality rate in the country and an astronomical rate of chemical-related illnesses.[8]

Cesar Chavez: Farm Labor Leader, Civil Rights Worker, and Vegan.
Cesar Chavez: Farm Labor Leader, Civil Rights Worker, and Vegan.

It is true that the problem is enormously exaggerated when the H-2 guest worker program is also considered. H-2 workers are denied the ability to change jobs if they are mistreated. They are bound to the employers who hired them. They can be subject to deportation or other retaliation, without recourse. They live in squalid conditions and are denied medical treatment for on-the-job injuries. Former House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Charles Rangel declared the guest worker program to be the closest thing he’d ever seen to slavery.[9]

Rarely do those of us who enjoy the fruits of all this hazardous labor ever see the workers themselves. The fields are far removed from our neighborhoods, cities, and perhaps even our states of residence. As the SPLC observed, the farther away the problem, the less attention it is given. Most of us will never see an industrial farm worker with our own eyes. We’re not really sure of where they actually work.

So, being a determined civil eater, what am I to do about this unseen problem? Well, to begin with, I can get educated, just as the SPLC urges.  The more I know, the more I can fight for changes long term. I can lobby, I can petition, I can call my representatives. I can support organizations such as the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, the Organic Consumers Association, and Farmworker Justice–groups who are fighting against this almost impenetrable wall that protects industrial agriculture from the growing indignation of consumers.

But I must realize that it take will decades to dismantle the current legislation and enact proper protections. The recent GMO labeling battles in various states illustrate this all too vividly.

Perhaps more immediately, however, I can take charge of my own dinner plate, defiantly placing on it only the foods which will support positive change.

It’s an easy challenge to state when the terms are left sufficiently vague. Let me be more specific, then, and present a more progressive tactic: I will place on my dinner plate only foods that are grown organically. Further, due to the accumulation of toxins, labor abuses, and other worker hazards[10]—not to mention environmental degradation and a greatly imbalanced energy-to-calorie ratio[11]–none of that food will be animal-based. I will employ an organic diet of plant-only foods. Not only at dinner, but for breakfast and lunch also.

It should be very plain to all of us: Eating is a much bigger act than simply putting food in one’s mouth. It is but one component of a tightly-integrated and interminable cycle. My eating must consider the well-being of soils, waterways, and workers. I can influence changes in the larger world by making changes in my very small world. When I sit at my table and regard all the people that provided my sustenance, one thing is very clear: rewarding a system that endangers them is grossly uncivil.

Is it all I can do? No, but it is something that everyone can do. And while it might take years for the industry to catch up, in the meantime I’m reinforcing the good that is out there, and I’m not empowering the bad. Individual actions do matter. They add up so much that even Wal-Mart—a corporation with a deplorable labor relations record–is quickly becoming a major player in the organic game. Which means that I will have more to learn, and more adjustments to make. The fight for civil rights is far from over, and it requires constant attention to detail.

And by the way, the problem isn’t as far away as we might think. For me, it’s as near as my dinner plate.

Additional Reading:

The SPLC report on civil rights education is here:

The SPLC also has a vast collection of writings regarding agricultural guest workers.

Civil rights are human rights, and Human Rights Watch provides other useful reports and suggested actions.

The Coalition of Immokalee Workers has been fighting for agricultural laborers since 1993.

The National Center for Farmworker Health, at

Farmworker Justice, at

The Hands That Feed Us: Challenges and Opportunities for Workers Along the Food Chain, Food Chain Workers Alliance,

Inventory Of Farmworker Issues And Protections In The United States – March 2011, By Bon Appétit Management Company Foundation United Farm Workers;

What’s Wrong with Industrial Agriculture, Organic Consumers Association,

The Fruits of Their Labor: Atlantic Coast Farmworkers and the Making of Migrant Poverty, 1870-1945, Cindy Hahamovitch, The University of North Carolina Press

[1] Teaching the Movement 2014: The State of Civil Rights Education in the United States;

[2] International Civil Rights Center & Museum;; my comments regarding the museum’s presentations are drawn from a personal visit made in August of 2012. A blog entry about my visit can be found here:

[4]; the Fact Sheet entitled “Farm Jobs” gives a succinct synopsis. Also see “Fields of Peril: Child Labor in US Agriculture,” Human Rights Watch,

[5]; the consent of the worker is not required.

[6] Inventory Of Farmworker Issues And Protections In The United States – March 2011, By Bon Appétit Management Company Foundation United Farm Workers;

[7] Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, As Amended;; exemptions begin on page 27.

[8] International Labour Organization, Agriculture: a hazardous work;–en/index.htm

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falloutsheltersigns 1036x463


Extended family gatherings were infrequent when I was young. But when my cousins, my brother, and I did see each other, a game of touch football was in order. Our college-going uncle served as quarterback for both teams, and most plays involved a pass towards the end zone. If we were playing behind my great-grandparents’ home, that end zone represented far more than a 6-point score. It signified the fears of a nation during the Cold War, embodied in a family fallout shelter.

Redefining ‘end zone’ for 40 years.

The few times we braved the rickety stairs in, we were engulfed in the musty smell of old mattresses and cobwebs. The walls were lined with shelves, each of them filled with faded canned foods. It all looked so mysterious and forbidden, and thankfully became an unnecessary relic.

Resonating through that dark family foxhole was the fact that they canned all those foods themselves, in good old heritage-rich Mason jars. Home-grown sustenance, preserved for the family to nourish them through fear.

Portions of this preservation ethic continued into my teen years, as my mom canned food from a variety of small family plots. Yet the majority of the food in our home was prepared and packaged under corporate aegis. We practiced backyard husbandry in the very suburb that supplanted my father’s boyhood rural home. For a while, an ancient Ford tractor stood in our garage, as my father meticulously restored it, hoping for a field to plow. These contrasts created in me nostalgia for things that never existed all in one place, fragments of heritage, disconnected parts of a massive body of knowledge.

Cultural heritage is a rich but delicate thing, with family heritage being even more so. It contains cultural components like music, folklore, biases, and philosophy. It contains physical elements, ancestral hand-me-downs like grandfather’s fiddle, photo albums, furniture, and old mixers. It extends tradition across generations.

Heritage’s delicacy lies in the fact that our memories are such temporary holding spaces. My personal memories cannot exceed my lifetime—so I cannot remember the legacy directly. I must depend upon family folklore—which can be shattered through local or worldwide disturbances, such as a Great Depression or a Cold War. Sometimes it just fades from neglect.

Given the tumultuous nature of the past century, I was born into a ruin: Artifacts existed, but they were broken or separated from their normal use. Traditional ways had succumbed to emergency measures. In the relief of waning emergencies, convenience had a strong appeal. The heritage went on hiatus.

Home-canned Beets
The pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. Non-irradiated, perfect for enjoying with others above ground.

In a sense, the home-grown and family-preserved sustenance was held captive by the fallout shelter. I had to decide which was of permanent value and which was pervasive but temporary fear.

The fear relates to many elements: compromised security, lost independence, increase in hunger, forgotten family, and a state of want.

Permanence relates to these same elements, at a level significantly higher yet nonetheless grounding: the sanctity of life, compassion, fairness, progress, and even creative deviance from the norm.

The common message is to listen to the fear: Build the bunker, stock it, and lock it.

But the less common message holds more power: The bunker is not part of your heritage. The heritage is in those jars. Everyone in the bunker gets to eat. Everyone comes out alive.

At some point in my own never-ending enlightenment, I realized that I would have to recreate who I was as an eater. My consumption had to keep pace with me as I became a more ethically-focused person. The traditions I might have been given in an uninterrupted stream across two centuries were sadly in disrepair. This meant that I had to recreate my heritage also. In my favor, I could build upon timeless values drawn from my family’s lived-in experiences. The remnants that I inherited—compassion, a sense of fairness, and self-reliance—were now mine to interpret in the New World. I had the honor and duty to craft them into a legacy for moving forward.

Heritage is what we are immersed in. It’s an ambient life-giving support system that stabilizes us as we progress. But it is not only ours: it belongs to those coming after us. By building wisely, with foresight and an expansive vision, we are bequeathing a better world for those yet to live.

We’ll have more to discuss at the New York City Vegetarian Food Festival, March 2, 2014. See you there.

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Sofrito Cornbread Strata

What do you do when you’ve made more cornbread than you can eat? Okay, that’s not quite the situation. I can eat a lot of cornbread, thanks to my heritage. But I did have some that was getting a bit stale, and I needed to reaffirm its importance. Hence, this Sofrito Cornbread Strata.

Seriously full of flavor, it’s like creamy polenta encased in crunchy crusty cornbread. It is absolutely center-of-the-plate material, so build the rest of the meal around it. For my meal, I added some black beans, charred broccoli, and a roasted red pepper cream sauce. Pico de gallo or another Mexican-style salsa would also be great companions.

Sofrito Cornbread Strata with Sweet Potatoes, Poblanos, and Mushrooms; Roasted Chile Cream Sauce; Frijoles Negros
Sofrito Cornbread Strata with Sweet Potatoes, Poblanos, and Mushrooms; Roasted Chile Cream Sauce; Frijoles Negros

Here’s the recipe. Some helpful notes follow. Enjoy!

Sofrito Cornbread Strata

2 tablespoons olive oil
1/2 pound mushrooms, sliced
1 cup sofrito (see recipe below)
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
4 cups cornbread, broken into crouton-sized bits
3 cups sweet potato, roasted, peeled, and diced
2 Poblano chiles, roasted, peeled, and diced
1 1/3 cups unsalted vegetable stock or water

1. Heat oven to 350°.

2. Warm the olive oil in a heavy sauté pan over medium heat. Add the mushrooms. Sauté until they release their liquid.

3. Add sofrito and salt. Mix well. Remove from heat.

4. Place the cornbread into a large mixing bowl. Add the mushroom and sofrito mixture.

5. Add the sweet potato and the poblano. Pour in 1/2 of the stock. Mix well.

6. Check the mixture for saturation. It should be evenly moist, with no excess stock in the bottom of the bowl. Add more stock if necessary and mix well.

7. Press the mixture into several lightly-oiled cake rings (mine are 3.5 dia x 2.25 deep), and place them on a lined baking sheet. Alternatively, you can put the entire mixture into a single lightly-oiled casserole dish. (If you’re using cake rings, you can place some of the vegetables around the edges so that they are visible when you remove the rings. This adds to the visual appeal of the dish.)

8. Bake uncovered at 350° for 30 minutes. If using rings, remove them at this point and broil for 5 more minutes.

Yield: 6 servings

Helpful Notes By design, strata and their sweeter kin, bread puddings, make use of leftover bread that’s become stale. However, it’s perfectly acceptable to make a fresh batch of cornbread for this dish. There are a few other advance prep items in this recipe in addition to cornbread. They can all be made a day or two ahead of time, so that putting together the strata is a cinch. So, before beginning the recipe itself:

  • Make cornbread (use your favorite recipe)
  • Roast sweet potato
  • Make sofrito (see recipe below)
  • Roast Poblano chile (see process below)
  • Make vegetable stock (follow link for great tips—this is so easy!)

You can easily pop the sweet potato in the oven while your cornbread is baking.

The sofrito recipe yields 2 cups, only 1 of which you’ll need for the strata. Use the other cup to flavor rice (add to ½ cup rice while cooking) or beans (add to 2 cups beans after they have been cooked.)


2 tablespoon olive oil
1 onion, diced
1 red bell pepper, diced
1 jalapeno pepper, seeded and minced
4 clove garlic, minced
1 teaspoon ground annatto seed
1 tablespoon dried oregano
1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
1/4 teaspoon ground chile (cayenne, chipotle, or ancho), optional
1/4 cup cilantro, or parsley, minced

1. Gently warm oil in sauté pan.

2. Add onion, bell pepper, and jalapeno. Sauté over medium heat for 5 minutes.

3. Add garlic, annatto, oregano, cumin, and optional chile powder. Sauté for an additional 5 or 10 minutes.

4. Add cilantro and turn off the heat.

Yield: 2 cups

Roasting Poblano Chiles: Turn your oven’s broiler on high. Place the chile in a pan under the broiler. Turn the chile every few minutes until it is entirely blackened and blistered. Place it in a plastic bag or a bowl with a cover. As the chile sweats, the peel will loosen. After about 20 minutes, you can easily remove all the peel. Resist the urge to rinse it, as doing so will wash away much of the flavorful oils. If you hit a stubborn spot where the peel won’t come off, don’t stress over it. It will be fine. Roasting can also be done on the stovetop if you have a gas stove. (This is actually closer to ‘authentic.’) Simply place the chile directly on the burner and turn on the fire. Rotate frequently as above, until the chile is fully blackened and blistered. Follow the same steps for sweating and peeling.

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FDR's Four Freedoms

Coalition of Immokalee Workers, Four Freedoms, and Publix

(This essay has now been published by Civil Eats, available here: A Chef Speaks Out on Farm Labor)

On October CIWbig-150x14616, the Coalition of Immokalee Workers received the prestigious Four Freedoms Medal from the Roosevelt Institute. The CIW, a worker-based human rights organization recognized worldwide for its ground-breaking work to end modern-day slavery and other agriculture-based labor abuses, joins a truly remarkable list of laureates, including Nelson Mandela, the Dalai Lama, and Presidents Truman, Kennedy, Carter, and Clinton.

Rising from the tomato fields near the Florida Everglades—identified by one US Justice Department official as “ground zero for modern slavery”—the Coalition has relentlessly waged David-and-Goliath battles against monolithic food corporations. And they are winning these battles.

As a professional chef, their fight is of central importance to me. Aesthetic factors of taste and quality are the most obvious reasons: most people will agree that workers who are fairly paid will deliver a better product. But more important to me are ethical principles behind the food I prepare: why should anyone feast at the sacrifice of another’s dignity?

And not just dignity, but wellness, sustenance, and personal security are being sacrificed in the fields. We reap a multitude of benefits from their labor, yet their labor brings them poverty-level wages, physical and sexual harassment, dilapidated shelter, exposure to hazardous chemicals, and exemption from many federal labor regulations, including overtime pay. It’s an enormous disparity, and at the center of it all lies a question: shouldn’t we honor those who provide us with our nourishment? As we celebrate amidst overabundance, shouldn’t we work for complete enfranchisement of all workers along the food supply chain?

The Coalition of Immokalee Workers is doing just that. In 2010, they established the Fair Food Program to improve worker conditions by asking retailers for only one more penny per pound for tomatoes grown in the southern Florida fields.

The program contains other features, too, such as a human-rights-based Code of Conduct for growers to implement in their fields. This code mandates zero tolerance for forced labor and sexual harassment, provides educational sessions for workers to learn about their rights and responsibilities, and establishes an oversight committee to monitor safety and compliance to the program.

All together, it speaks of respect, dignity, and equality, allowing field workers more access to the basic rights we all enjoy.

However, as national retail chains come to Asheville, we are reminded that there are more battles to fight. Publix Supermarkets, Inc. has announced plans to open a store in Asheville in 2015. For four years, they have refused to participate in the Fair Food Program.

Florida-based Publix is not only the most profitable supermarket in the US, they are also the 8th largest privately owned corporation in the country. In 2012, their retail sales totaled $27.5 billion. Their refusal to improve conditions for the workers who grow their tomatoes, in their home state of Florida, indicates that they are not entirely neighborly.

Contrastingly, eleven major retail chains have signed on to the program: Whole Foods, McDonald’s, Taco Bell, Chipotle, Trader Joe’s, Subway, Bon Apetit, Sodexo, Burger King, Aramark, and Compass Group. The benefit for the workers has been tremendous, as more than $10 million has been paid to them through the program. But it’s about more than just pay. It’s also about humane standards. And it hits close to home in North Carolina.

North Carolina is one of our country’s leading agricultural states. It is easy to see that the experience of tomato growers in Florida is the experience of tobacco workers in North Carolina. And just as civil rights have always been important in North Carolina, farm worker rights should be important—for they are civil rights.

For me professionally, ethics along the food supply chain have become increasingly important. As I become more aware of injustice in the system, I also learn about companies and organizations who are trying to set things aright. The Coalition of Immokalee Workers and those that have joined its Campaign for Fair Food are making major strides towards fairness for all.

Congratulations to the Coalition for this latest honor bestowed upon them by the Roosevelt Institute. They have been commended and awarded by the White House, the State Department, numerous international human rights organizations, and agricultural organizations, and we should award them by purchasing food where their program has been embraced.

We can award them further by sending a strong message to Publix Supermarkets that Asheville citizens will not patron their stores until they join the other national retailers in the Fair Food Program. You will not miss the penny you spend elsewhere, but it will constitute a fortunate bonus for the workers in the field.

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Crafting Non-attachment

The restaurant business is largely about ego. As a venue or chef builds an identity, egos become inordinately inflated. The maintenance of an ego requires the subjection of other egos. Subjection can be voluntary, or it can be coerced. Voluntary subjection often involves admiration and fawning. Coerced subjection is an uneasy thing, always ripe for rebellion.

Taking the position of Executive Chef requires that one have highly developed skills of coercion, for admiration comes in small numbers. One must be ready to squash any person, or group of persons, who wish to overthrow the regime. There are plenty of other egos on the rise.

I simply don’t have the interest in such matters. The time dedicated to cultivating an ego is better spent marveling at how things work: I mix my doughs. I let them rise as they will. I bake them. I let them go.

The ‘letting go’ part actually happens during the entire process. I bring together the elements. They work together as though I am not present. They develop towards their natural outcome. I am their servant more than their master. I can manipulate fermentation, but I certainly don’t own it.

As they work, I acknowledge that it is not me doing the work. It’s the yeast. The wheat. The water. The salt.

A craftsman will know just when and precisely how to interfere with working elements. And more importantly, a craftsman will know when not to interfere. Music works without a single person playing a guitar. Plants grow when we get out of their way—and they have shown that if we interfere too much, they will cease to nourish us.

Pride of craftsmanship is not equivalent to arrogance. Arrogance must speak loudly, of its own volition, about its own attributes. A craftsman can remain silent and let his work speak. This is how I wish to direct my energy. There is much more grace in it. It is a worthy goal to pursue: the heart of poetry, the core of craft, the essence of artisanship. It is the art of non-attachment.

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Edible Craft

My donning of the bread-baker’s apron was not just a clever escape from an increasingly unethical predicament. More than that, it was a return to simplicity, to usefulness, to deeper and more satisfying meaning.

Bulgur Oat Loaves.
Bulgur Oat Loaves.

One of the reasons I changed careers a decade ago–from overpaid hi-tech exec to wage-earning food worker—was because I wanted to have a trade that I could take anywhere and perform at any time. To do something useful, something beneficial and immediate.  To have the option of moving off to some small town somewhere and just making food. The art of cooking is the most useful of arts, the most beneficial of crafts, and is certainly immediate in its application. As the saying goes, “Everyone’s gotta eat.”

Working now as a bread baker, I find myself even more connected to craft. It’s one of the oldest of the culinary arts, with a legacy of sustenance that almost predates history. And yet, with all of its longevity, it hasn’t become obsolete or passé. It is as vital to our enjoyment—if not to our sustenance—as it has always been. Its current renaissance as popular craft, with so many small-batch bakeries popping up and everyone talking about “artisan bread,” illuminates a core characteristic of bread baking: it is still an art form of challenging mastery.

The elements of flour, water, salt, and yeast each possess their own inertia, and will do what they are going to do. As a bread baker, my job is to work in concert with their impulses, to act or react at the proper time for developing the best flavor and texture for the bread. It’s a well-scripted art and an improvisational art simultaneously. I accept that I will always be a neophyte.

A Mix of Artisan Hearth Breads
A Mix of Artisan Hearth Breads

While I work to achieve a base level of competence, however, the pieces I make are still useful. They don’t pile up like so many unfinished canvasses or studio tapes. I don’t have incomplete projects lying around, or lopsided vases or an archive of poorly-lit negatives. What I have is still useful and sustaining. My test pieces, however unhappy I am with them, are still enjoyable with a spread of jam or tapenade.

Most of all, my hands are busy with honest business. I make my pieces with pride and identity, knowing that they will be enjoyed. The ones I make next week will be enjoyed even more. Upon each is the indelible print of my hands.

Beyond fulfilling the need for nutritional sustenance, bread supplies a greater assemblage of nutrients for an artist: anticipation for the outcome, desire for ongoing exploration, the promise of long-term mastery, and active learning for a lifetime. Everyone needs a good slice of that for dinner.

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Kobayashi Maru on Wry

I want to pick up the thought I left at the end of the previous entry. The idea that I appeared as my own ‘deus ex machina,’ and rescued myself from a situation that was ethically compromising.

I’ve been in this type of compromising situation before. It was at the core of my flight from high tech into cooking several years ago. In fact, my entire life at that point was in violation of my own ethics. So I walked into my own headquarters and announced my departure. I resigned from the life I was living, and set out to determine my own terms.

It’s a classic Kobayashi Maru test, the famous Star Trek scenario which presented an iron-clad no-win situation. Every cadet at Starfleet Academy was required to pass this test as a show of character. Obsessed with beating the system, Kirk hacked the computer and rewrote the program.

In rewriting the program, or redefining the terms of engagement, we must proceed fearlessly. We must have a clear concept of who we truly are, for we are defying those that have a semblance of authority over us. It can be career-threatening, it can limit our life choices, it can end other relationships. It can put a strain on everything—especially our self-worth.

But at its core, it is about reclaiming one’s self-worth. Sometimes you must risk losing it in order to win it back. (It lends itself to all manner of trite ‘motivational speaker’ pronouncements, as you can see.)

By informing my employer that I no longer wished to serve in my executive capacity, I left the institution without a leader. Further, informing them that I would assume bread-baking duties was quite presumptuous, a heady dose of hubris.

It’s a stroke of self-actualized Tao recursion–the perfect way to manage any no-win program.

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